Relationship between Smoking and Vocal Self-perception of Trans Women

Relación entre el tabaquismo y la autopercepción vocal de las mujeres trans


Objective. To verify the relationship between smoking, age, schooling, and the vocal self-perception of trans women.

Methods. Cross-sectional observational quantitative study conducted with 24 trans women over 18 years old, living in their affirmed gender for a minimum of 6 months. Data collection involved selected questions from the translated and authorized Portuguese version of the Trans Woman Voice Questionnaire (TWVQ) and information regarding age, education, occupation, and smoking status. All variables were analyzed descriptively, and the association with smoking was assessed using Pearson's Chi-square, Fisher's Exact, Student's T, and Mann-Whitney tests, with a significance level of 5%.

Results. The mean age of trans women was 28.2 +/- 6.5 years (range: 21 - 48). Most participants (41.6%) had completed their high school education and pursued diverse careers. Regarding smoking habits, 58.3% of women were either current smokers or had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime. A statistically significant association was found between smoking and age (p = 0.001), with smokers having a lower average age (24.9 years) compared to nonsmokers (32.9 years). However, no statistical significance was observed between smoking, education, and self-perception of vocal femininity. Only 9 (37.5%) trans women perceived their voices as feminine, while 17 (70.7%) desired a more feminine-sounding voice.

Limitation. The limited sample size in this study may have constrained the ability to detect significant differences between the analyzed groups using statistical tests.

Conclusion. The smoking prevalence was notably high among younger trans women. However, there was no statistically significant difference in vocal self-perception between those who smoked and those who did not. The majority of trans women expressed a desire for their voices to sound more feminine, particularly among smokers.


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Citado por


Ana Clara Oliveira Abreu
Cirley Novais Valente Junior
Adriane Mesquita de Medeiros


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